What is Invalid Traffic (IVT)?
The MRC (Media Rating Council) considers Invalid traffic to be a collective term for both General and Sophisticated invalid traffic. It defines the two different types of invalid traffic as follows:
General Invalid Traffic (GIVT)
“Traffic identified through routine means of filtrations executed through application of lists or with other standardized parameter checks”. Examples include: “known data-center traffic (determined to be a consistent source of non-human traffic; not including routing artifacts of legitimate users or virtual machine legitimate browsing), bots and spiders or other crawlers (except those as noted below in the “Sophisticated Invalid Traffic” category), activity-based filtration using campaign or application data and transaction parameters from campaign or application data, non-browser user-agent headers or other forms of unknown browsers and pre-fetch or browser pre-rendered traffic.”
Sophisticated Invalid Traffic (SIVT)
“Consists of more difficult to detect situations that require advanced analytics, multi-point corroboration/coordination, significant human intervention, etc., to analyze and identify. Key examples are: bots and spiders or other crawlers masquerading as legitimate users; hijacked devices; hijacked sessions within hijacked devices; hijacked ad tags; hijacked creative; hidden/stacked/covered or otherwise intentionally obfuscated ad serving; invalid proxy traffic (originating from an intermediary proxy device that exists to manipulate traffic counts or create/pass-on non-human or invalid traffic or otherwise failing to meet protocol validation); adware; malware; incentivized manipulation of measurements (fraudulent incentivized promotion of an entity, without its knowledge or permission); misappropriated content (where used to purposefully falsify traffic at a material level); falsified viewable impression decisions; falsely represented sites (sites masquerading as other entities for illegitimate purposes) or impressions; cookie stuffing, recycling or harvesting (inserting, deleting or misattributing cookies thereby manipulating or falsifying prior activity of users ); manipulation or falsification of location data or related attributes; and differentiating human and IVT traffic when originating from the same or similar source in certain closely intermingled circumstances.”